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Feature Articles: Video Technology for 4K/8K Services with Ultrahigh Sense of Presence

HEVC Hardware Encoder Technology

Takayuki Onishi, Takashi Sano, Kazuya Yokohari,
Jia Su, Mitsuo Ikeda, Atsushi Sagata,
Hiroe Iwasaki, and Atsushi Shimizu

Abstract

For 4K and 8K video services that are capable of providing high definition pictures with an abundant sense of presence, the latest H.265/MPEG-H video coding standard, also known as HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding), should allow the encoding of huge quantities of video data to be performed effectively and with high compression efficiency. This article introduces HEVC hardware encoder technology that is capable of encoding 4K video in real time.

Keywords: HEVC, 4K/8K, hardware encoder

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1. Introduction

In recent years, advances in device technologies have resulted in the rapid proliferation of devices such as cameras, displays, and tablets that are capable of capturing and displaying 4K video, which has higher resolution than high-definition television (HDTV). With the proliferation of these devices, expectations are growing with regard to next-generation video services for the distribution of HD video via broadcasting and network delivery. In particular, 4K TVs are becoming increasingly popular in ordinary households, with many models now available from major TV manufacturers. It is also becoming possible to experience this technology at 4K live viewings and event broadcasts, and at movie theaters and other venues equipped with 4K projectors.

However, systems that use the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding) (also known as H.264) international video coding standard—the current mainstream technology—tend to be overwhelmed by the large amount of data (bit rate) needed for 4K video, and thus, there is a strong need for systems that support the latest international video coding standard H.265/MPEG-H, also called HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding), which offers about twice the coding efficiency of H.264. The development of HEVC systems with high compression efficiency is also an important requirement for making 4K content viewable in every home and for delivering video using a variety of transmission media.

2. The need for real-time encoders

To broadcast and deliver HD content that is best appreciated live, for example, high-profile sporting events and live concerts, rather than pre-recorded content such as movies and dramas, it is essential to have a mechanism for encoding and transmitting video in real time. For transmission applications where video contributions are needed during program production, we require high-performance equipment that not only operates in real time but is also compact and has low latency, low power consumption, and faithful color reproduction. We therefore need a hardware encoder that can stably encode and deliver video while maintaining real-time performance.

3. Recent advances in video encoding hardware technology

At NTT laboratories, we have been researching and developing technologies to realize real-time broadcasting and communication services for high-quality HD video, including the world’s first single-chip HDTV MPEG-2 encoder large-scale integrated circuit (LSI) [1] and HDTV-compatible H.264 encoder LSI [2]. NTT’s VASA single-chip HDTV MPEG-2 encoder LSI has contributed greatly to the spread and growth of digital TV relay network services transmitting video material, and our SARA H.264 encoder LSI has made a similar contribution to digital TV broadcasting and delivery services, including the HIKARI TV digital broadcasting and on-demand service. The accumulation of these technologies has accelerated the development of HEVC hardware encoder configuration technology for compatibility with next-generation 4K and 8K*1 video (Fig. 1).


Fig. 1. Evolution of video encoding hardware technology.

*1 4K and 8K: Video formats with resolutions of 3840 × 2160 and 7680 × 4320 pixels, respectively (equal to twice and four times the resolution of HDTV in each dimension), so-called because they have approximately 4,000 and 8,000 pixels in each horizontal line. The frame rate (number of frames displayed per second) has also been increased to 60 frames per second, which is twice as fast as HDTV.

4. HEVC: The latest encoding standard

HEVC is the most recent international standard for video coding, the first issue of which (version 1) was published in January 2013 [3]. A second issue (version 2) is currently being drafted. This will include compatibility with high color reproducibility (4:2:2 of 4:4:4 encoding) for high-end professional applications, and hierarchical coding whereby the video quality is changed in a stepwise fashion suited to the available bit rate. The coding performance of HEVC is expected to be capable of achieving comparable picture quality with half the data needed for H.264 (widely used in One-Seg and smartphones) and just a quarter of the data needed for MPEG-2 coding (used for terrestrial digital TV and DVDs (digital versatile discs)). To achieve a practical bandwidth for the broadcasting and delivery of 4K and 8K video, where the amount of video data increases dramatically, it is essential to adopt HEVC with high compression efficiency.

Although the basic framework of HEVC coding is similar to that of the prior standards, it uses a much stronger combination of parameters such as block sizes and block shapes when subdividing and encoding an image, so as to efficiently eliminate redundancies contained within the image. A comparison of HEVC and H.264 is presented in Table 1. By adapting to image features, HEVC can encode large regions of uniform color (e.g., blue skies) all at once so as to eliminate unnecessary image subdivision overheads, while in regions with complex movements such as crowds of people, it uses detailed predictive coding to achieve a detailed separation of image regions corresponding to each movement. The use of such methods results in high overall coding efficiency.


Table 1. Comparison of the latest HEVC and H.264 coding standards.

5. HEVC encoder design issues

Although HEVC achieves highly efficient coding by using a wide combination of block sizes and block shapes, this places a significantly higher processing load on the video encoding processor and can cause severe loading. To improve the encoder performance, it is essential to find a solution that achieves high coding efficiency with fewer combinations, without loss of coding quality. In particular, to achieve high real-time performance in the design of a hardware encoder, a mechanism for efficiently selecting combinations with high coding efficiency must be implemented while balancing the trade-off between picture quality and the scale of the processing circuitry.

6. HEVC hardware design method

The development of a hardware encoder usually begins with a software simulation to evaluate the coding performance prior to the design stage. In practice, however, it is difficult to estimate the circuit scale of an actual hardware implementation, which results in problems such as prolonged simulation runs and the difficulties associated with evaluating the quality of large numbers of video images. We are therefore adopting the following two approaches based on the idea of searching for an optimal architecture by making flexible changes to the hardware configuration in order to improve the coding efficiency while evaluating the picture quality in actual hardware as well as in the simulation.

(1) SystemC development approach

SystemC is a hardware design language that can automatically generate hardware circuits from source code written in C++, a language widely used for software development. Compared with RTL (Register Transfer Level: a conventional hardware design language), the design of typical hardware design aspects such as the arithmetic unit configuration and clock handling is automated so that the designer can concentrate on developing the encoder processing algorithm. When changes are made to the encoding algorithm, a new hardware circuit can easily be generated automatically.

(2) Video codec development platform

We have developed a video codec development platform that can run hardware circuit simulations written in SystemC (Fig. 2). This platform can accommodate up to four modules based on rewritable hardware circuits in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), allowing hardware circuits generated by SystemC to be written and operated in real time. In addition to setting up input and output terminals for the video and encoded data on the main board, we also added the ability to make flexible changes to the connections between modules by mounting a separate FPGA to be connected between the four base modules.


Fig. 2. Video codec development platform.

These two approaches are used to successively implement and improve the hardware while striking a balance between circuit scale and picture quality, and as a result, it has become possible to increase the performance of the HEVC hardware encoder while reducing the time needed for design [4]. An example of a real-time 4K HEVC intra codec that was implemented in the video codec development platform is shown in Fig. 3.


Fig. 3. Operation of 4K HEVC intra codec.

This codec performs 4K encoding by splitting the 4K video into four quadrants that are separately input to module circuits configured for real-time HEVC intra-coding*2 and decoding of video sized at HDTV dimensions in each FPGA.

In the future, we aim to continue using the same development method to further improve the hardware architectures for HEVC encoder LSIs.

*2 Intra-coding: A method for performing predictive coding based only on information from within the same video frame. H.264 and HEVC use a method that predicts pixel values extending in a specified direction based on the pixel values around the block to be encoded.

7. Future prospects

High-definition video is likely to be used in a widening range of environments as further improvements are made to display technology and camera performance.

We expect there will be an ever-growing need for real-time encoding technology with good picture quality and superior compression performance, and therefore intend to contribute to the expansion of high-quality broadcasting and video-on-demand services by continuing with our research and development of encoder technology as a key component of 4K and 8K video services.

References

[1] J. Naganuma, H. Iwasaki, K. Nitta, K. Nakamura, T. Yoshitome, M. Ogura, Y. Nakajima, Y. Tashiro, T. Onishi, M. Ikeda, and M. Endo: “VASA: Single-chip MPEG-2 422P@HL Codec LSI with Multi-chip Configuration for Large Scale Processing beyond HDTV Level,” Hot Chips 14, Aug. 2002.
[2] K. Nitta, M. Ikeda, H. Iwasaki, T. Onishi, T. Sano, A. Sagata, Y. Nakajima, M. Inamori, T. Yoshitome, H. Matsuda, R. Tanida, A. Shimizu, K. Nakamura, and J. Naganuma: “An H.264/AVC High422 Profile and MPEG-2 422 Profile Encoder LSI for HDTV Broadcasting Infrastructures,” 2008 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp.106–107, Honolulu, HI, June 2008.
[3] G. Sullivan, J. Ohm, W. Han, and T. Wiegand: “Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Dec. 2012.
[4] K. Yokohari, K. Nitta, M. Ikeda, and A. Shimizu: “Parallel Design Methodology for Video Codec LSI with High-Level Synthesis and FPGA-Based Platform,” 50th Design Automatic Conference (DAC 2013), Austin, USA, June 2013.
Takayuki Onishi
Senior Research Engineer, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
He received the B.E. and M.E. degrees in information and communication engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1997 and 1999, respectively. In 1999, he joined NTT Cyber Space Laboratories (now, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories), where he engaged in R&D of high quality image coding and transmission. He is currently a senior research engineer in the Visual Media Project of NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
Takashi Sano
Research Engineer, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
He received the B.E. and M.E. degrees in electronic engineering from Tokyo University of Science in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In 2004, he joined NTT Cyber Space Laboratories, where he has been engaged in R&D of software and hardware design of high quality image coding. He is currently a research engineer in the Visual Media Project of NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
Kazuya Yokohari
Researcher, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
He received the B.E degree in computer science and engineering from the University of Aizu, Fukushima and the M.E. degree in communication engineering from Tohoku University, Miyagi, in 2006 and 2008, respectively. In 2008, he joined NTT Cyber Space Laboratories. He has been engaged in R&D of parallel processing architecture and high efficiency algorithms for video codecs. He is currently a researcher in the Visual Media Project of NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
Jia Su
Researcher, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
She received the B.E. and M.E. degrees in telecommunications engineering from the Telecommunications Engineering school of Xidian University, China, in 2006 and 2009, respectively, and the M.E. and Ph.D. degrees from the Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University, in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In 2012, she joined NTT Cyber Space Laboratories. She has been engaged in R&D of parallel processing architecture and high efficiency algorithms for video codecs. She is currently a researcher in the Visual Media Project of NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
Mitsuo Ikeda
Senior Research Engineer, Supervisor, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
He received the B.E. and M.E. degrees in mathematics and physics from Kyoto University in 1989 and 1991, respectively. In 1991, he joined NTT. He has been engaged in R&D on video coding and LSI design. He is a member of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE) and the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE).
Atsushi Sagata
Senior Research Engineer, Supervisor, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
He received the B.E. degree in electronic engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1994. He joined NTT in 1994 and has been engaged in R&D of video coding systems in NTT Cyber Space Laboratories. His current research interests include digital image processing, real-time hardware/software video coding systems, and video transmission systems. He is a member of IEICE of Japan.
Hiroe Iwasaki
Senior Research Engineer, Supervisor, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
She received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in information science from Tsukuba University, Ibaraki, in 1992 and 2006, respectively. She joined NTT Switching System Laboratories in 1992. She has been engaged in R&D of architecture and a real-time operating system for multimedia embedded system LSIs. She moved to NTT Cyber Space Laboratories in 1997. She is a member of IEEE, IEICE of Japan, and the Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ).
Atsushi Shimizu
Senior Research Engineer, Supervisor, NTT Media Intelligence Laboratories.
He received the B.E. and M.E. degrees in electronic engineering from Nihon University, Tokyo, in 1990 and 1992, respectively. Since joining NTT in 1992, he has been engaged in video compression algorithm and software development. He is a member of IEICE, the Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan (IIEEJ), and the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers.

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